Chalkley Counting in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Does It Have a Prognostic Value?

Authors: Paul Campbell, Reuben Bennet, Louise Joyce Lim, Helen D. Brasch, Reginald Marsh, Tinte Itinteang and Swee T. Tan

Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedical Science (2019). doi:10.14302/issn.2576-6694.jbbs-19-2625

Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is the 15th most common cancer worldwide with substantial geographical differences and greater incidence in developing countries. It affects males most commonly, in their fifth and sixth decades of life, although the incidence is increasing in women and those under the age of 45. Risk factors include alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing.

The prognosis depends on several factors, including the development of new blood vessels. Quantification of this development has led to its use for determining tumour-related prognosis. One method is Chalkley counting, which has been shown to be appropriate for predicting the survival of patients with gastrointestinal tumours. However its applicability for quantifying blood vessel development in breast cancer has been questioned.

The GMRI team and collaborators have investigated the effectiveness of Chalkley counting for quantifying blood vessel development in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma and its relation to cancer progression and metastasis. Only one of the four markers for the vessel development showed any correlation with the prognosis. We conclude that Chalkley counting is not a reliable prognostic method for oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.